Corns and calluses occur when there is excess or thickening of the skin, usually on the soles of the feet. Calluses form on weight bearing parts of the body and corns on non weight bearing areas.
These usually develop on weight bearing parts of the body such as the sole of the foot, especially the ball and heel. They are rough, thickened patches of skin which are rarely painful. Poor foot bio mechanics can cause additional pressure on certain areas of the foot. This pressure causes hypertrophy of the skin or excess skin growth.
Corns are smaller than calluses and develop on parts of the foot which aren't weight bearing, for example the tops or sides of the toes and occur due to friction. They can be tender when touched.
A podiatrist or chiropodist may remove the corns and hard skin with a scalpel making sure they do not cut into the health skin tissue. Orthotic inserts can help correct poor foot biomechanics by controlling the position of the foot during the gait cycle and preventing abnormal pressure on parts of the foot.
Vaseline or petroleum jelly applied to the skin can help reduce friction and pressure over the area. Corn and callus plasters are available to help protect the areas and prevent friction.