Rugby Injuries

Rugby is well known for a high injury rate and this is mostly due to the physicality and contact nature of the sport, coupled with a lack or protective equipment! In most cases, the only protection a rugby player wears is shin pads and a gum shield, although shoulder padding and padded scrum caps are also available and permitted.

Most common

Common injuries include impact injuries such as AC joint separations, shoulder dislocations and contusions. Injuries similar to other field sports such as soccer and hockey are also common. These include hamstring strains and ankle sprains due to bursts of speed and rapid changes in direction.


Should I seek professional treatment?

If you have any of the following symptoms you should seek further medical assistance.

  • Severe pain, especially on walking
  • Severe swelling (oedema)
  • Altered sensation in the foot – such as a feeling of “pins and needles” (paresthesia) or a “loss of feeling” (anaesthesia).
  • Unable to complete normal daily activities after the initial 72 hours.

Further medical assistance can be sought through either your local GP or a private clinician such as a podiatrist, physiotherapist, sports therapist, osteopath or chiropractor. If you have followed the P.R.I.C.E. principles (see below) and are still unable to walk after 72 hours or still have severe pain that is not subsiding after the first 72 hours you should visit your local A&E department for further assessment.

Secondly, if you have applied for P.R.I.C.E. principles and still have weakness that lasts a long time (more than 2 weeks) or have ongoing discomfort in your foot or heel, you are highly recommended to seek advice from a specialist expert - such as a podiatrist or physiotherapist, osteopath, or chiropractor - who can provide you with advice and an appropriate and effective recovery and rehabilitation program.


Immediate first aid for acute injuries

The PRICE principles are the gold standard set for treating acute sports injuries. The acronym stands stands for Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation and should be applied as early as possible and continued for at least the first 24-72 hours.

Protection

Protection of the damaged tissue is vital to prevent further damage and enable the healing process to start efficiently and effectively. There are a number of ways to protect the injured area all with the same aim of limiting further movement and use of the joint/muscle/ligament/tendon. One way this can be achieved is using a support or splint.

Rest

In the early stages, rest is one of the most important components of the P.R.I.C.E principle but is often neglected or ignored. It does not only refer to the prolonged period of time that the athlete will be out of action but also to the immediate period after the injury.

An athlete must know when to stop training and allow the injured area to heal otherwise repetitive minor injuries can often result in a more severe injury that keeps the athlete out for much longer.

If an injury is sustained during sporting activity some athletes have a tendency to 'run it off'. This implies that by continuing to participate in the exercise, the injury will simply go away. In fact, in the majority of cases this is not true and is not advisable.

Ice

Ice therapy, also known as cryotherapy, is one of the most widely known and used treatment modalities for acute sports injuries. It is cheap, easy to use and requires very little time to or expertise to prepare.

The application of ice to an injury, in the acute phase can substantially decrease the extent of the damage. It achieves this in a number of different ways:

  • Decreases the amount of bleeding by closing down the blood vessels (called vasoconstriction).

  • Reduces pain (pain gate theory)

  • Reduces muscle spasm

  • Reduces the risk of cell death (also called necrosis) by decreasing the rate of metabolism

Ice is usually applied to the injured site by means of a bag filled with crushed ice which is wrapped in a damp towel. The damp towel is essential as it forms a barrier between the bag of ice and the skin and reduces the risk of an “ice burn”. DO NOT leave the ice on for more than 15 minutes as you could cause an “ice burn”.

There are a small number of areas that you should not apply ice to which include the neck, the outside bone of the elbow, the collar bone (upper end), the front of the hip (bony part) and the outer bone of the knee. The reason for this is there is a superficial nerve just below the skin in these areas that can be damaged by applying ice to it. Always check for contraindications.

Compression

Applying compression to an injured area minimises the amount of swelling that forms after an injury in two ways and should be applied for the first 24 to 72 hours from the onset of injury. Compression can be applied through a number of methods. The most effective of these is by using a compression bandage which is an elasticated bandage that simply fits around the affected limb.

Elevation

Elevation of the injured limb is the final principle of PRICE but is equally as important as the other 4. Elevation allows gravity to drain the fluid away from the injured site. This aids in decreasing the swelling which in turn may decrease the pain associated with the oedema (swelling).

Read more on PRICE principles


Preventing Rugby injuries

Due to the contact and aggressive style of rugby, many injuries are acute, traumatic injuries and as such are difficult to prevent. Other injuries such as hamstring strains can be prevented by ensuring correct warm-up, strengthening and flexibility programs are followed.

Warm Up

Warming up is often overlooked but should be part of your injury prevention routine. A good warm will:

  • Increase the temperature of muscles - they work better at a temperature of 40 degrees.
  • Increase blood flow and oxygen to muscles.
  • Increase the speed of nerve impulses - making you faster.
  • Increase range of motion at joints reducing the risk of tearing muscles and ligaments

Warm up will not only help avoid injury but will also improve performance.

A warm up should consist of:

  • A gentle pulse raiser for 5-10 minutes to circulate blood and oxygen supplying the muscles with more energy to work with. Jogging, skipping and cycling are all acceptable forms of warm-up.
  • Stretching to increase the range of motion at joints. Emphasis should be placed on stretching the muscles of the legs and lower back and shoulders.

Cool Down

This is also often overlooked in favor of sitting down and resting, or even heading to the bar! However, it can help avoid injuries and boost performance. The aim of the cool down is to:

  • Gradually lower heart rate.
  • Circulate blood and oxygen to muscles, restoring them to the condition they were in before exercise.
  • Remove waste products such as lactic acid.
  • Reduce the risk of muscle soreness.

The cool down should consist of a period light cardio work, such as jogging or walking, followed by stretching.

Protective Clothing

There are many types of protective clothing which can be worn for rugby. These include:

  • Gum shields (mouth guards)
  • Scrum caps
  • Shoulder pads
  • Shin pads (guards)

Each player has their preferences as to which equipment they wear and this is also position dependant. For example, those involved in a scrum are more likely to wear a scrum cap to help prevent concussion and to reduce the 'cauliflower ear' effect!

Sports Massage

Getting a regular sports massage can flush the muscles of waste products and release tight knots, lumps and bumps in muscles that if left may cause strains and tears. It is possible for a good sports massage therapist to identify potential trouble spots long before they become injuries.

Nutrition, Hydration Injury

Proper nutrition is important. A bad diet will prevent you from recovering from training sessions making you more prone to injury. A balanced diet is what you should aim for:

  • Carbohydrate is important for refueling muscles.
  • Protein rebuilds muscles.
  • If you become dehydrated then less blood will flow through muscles. The muscles will be more prone to injury.
  • Vitamins and minerals are required for a number of reasons related to recovery.

Much of what is discussed above should be part of your sporting routine. A biomechanical analysis can help identify possible injury risks. Assessment from a sports therapist or specialist can identify weak areas and possible injury risks. A course of exercises specific to your needs can give you the best chance of avoiding injury.

Training

Not allowing your body to recover properly from training will eventually result in injury. Your body needs time to rebuild itself stronger before the next training session. Remember - you are not training when you are training, you are training when you recover! Sleep is also an important part of your training. If you are not getting enough, get it sorted.

In the event that a sports injury does occur, having a sports insurance policy will mean you are covered for costs of treatment and lost earning!