Ankle, Achilles & Shin Pain
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This feature is for information only an should not replace a qualified Doctor or Practitioner.
Ankle, Achilles & Shin Pain
- Achilles bursitis - Achilles or retrocalcaneal bursitis is the inflammation of a sack of fluid (bursa) between the achilles tendon and the calcaneus bone at the back of the heel.
- Sever's Disease - Sever's disease occurs in children and adolescents where the soft bone where the achilles attaches starts to crumble due to repeated traction.
- Shin splints - Shin splints is a common condition amonst runners, causing pain on the inner shin. The develops gradually and eases with rest although is often worst the morning after a run.
- Tibia stress fracture - A stress fracture is sometimes also known as a hairline fracture. A stress fracture can develop in the shin bone, especially in runners or those doing a lot of walking.
- Fibula stress fracture - The fibula is the smaller of the two shin bones, found on the outer lower leg. Stress fractures here are rare as it is not a weight bearing bone.
- Anterior compartment syndrome (chronic) - Chronic compartment syndrome develops gradually due to an increase in size of the shin muscles within the sheath they are surrounded by. This occurs in runners.
- Anterior compartment syndrome (acute) - Acute compartment syndrome occurs after an impact to the lower leg. This causes swelling in the anterior compartment and a build up of pressure.
- Tibialis Anterior Tendon Sheath Inflammation - The tibialis anterior muscle runs down the front of the shin and then the tendon passes down the front/inside of the ankle. An injury can occur due to overuse, especially when running on hard surfaces.
- Peroneal nerve compression - Also known as peroneal neuropathy, this injury may occur due to an acute knee injury putting pressure on the nerve, or sitting with the legs crossed.
- Achilles tendon rupture - An achilles rupture is a completet tear of the thick tendon at teh back of the ankle. When this happens often a popping noise is heard.
- Partial achilles rupture - A partial tear of the achilles tendon is less serious than a complete rupture although may be more painful! This may occur during jumping or sprinting movements.
- Achilles tendonitis - Achilles tendonitis (or tendinopathy) is a degernative condition of the achilles tendon, found at the back of the ankle. It develops gradually and causes pain and stiffness in the tendon.
- Haglunds syndrome - Haglund's syndrome is a combination of both achilles tendonitis and achilles bursitis. This might be due to a haglund's deformity - which is a bony growth at the back of the heel bone.
- Insertional achilles tendonitis - Achilles tendonitis can also occur at the attachment point of the tendon to the heel bone. This is lower down than most cases of achilles tendonitis and may be associated with an achilles bursitis.
- Calf strain - A calf strain is a tear of one of the calf muscles at the back of the lower leg. It usually develops after a forceful contraction to jump or accelerate.
- Deep vein thrombosis - DVT is a blood clot in a vein. They commonly occur in the calf muscles, although can be found in other body parts and can move to the chest or brain which could be very serious. They may develop during long haul flights or after surgery.
- Tight calf muscles - Tight calf muscles are common in people who run or walk a lot. They may cause an aching and tightening feeling in the calf and a lack of ankle movement which develops throughout a run/walk.
- Lateral compartment syndrome - The lateral compartment of the lower leg contains the Peroneal muscles. Compartment syndrome occurs when the contents of the compartment becomes to big for the sheath which contains it. This can be due to an impact causing swelling/bleeding or muscle growth.
- Cramp - Cramp is an involuntary muscle contraction or spasm. It can occur in any muscle group, although the calf is one of the most common. It comes on quickly and is usually due to fatigue in the muscles.
- Tennis leg - Tennis leg is a term used to describle a tear at the top, inside of the calf muscle and sometimes the plantaris muscle too. It comes on suddenly with pain at the back of the knee/calf.
- Contusion of the lower leg - A contusion occurs after a direct impact to a muscle, which crushes it against the underlying bone, resulting in bleeding within the muscle.
- Deep posterior compartment syndrome - Compartment syndrome is caused by the contents of one compartment becoming too big for the sheath which surrounds it. This may be due to an impact causing bleeding/swelling, muscle growth or a mucles tear.
- Eversion ankle sprain - An eversion ankle sprain is damage to the ligaments on the inside of the ankle. This is not as common as an inversion ankle sprain. It is caused by rolling the ankle inwards.
- High ankle sprain - A high ankle sprain is damage to the anterio talofibular ligament at the front of the ankle. It tends to happen during a twisting force combined with inversion (turning the sole of the foot inwards).
- Footballers ankle - Footballers' ankle occurs when you get a bony growth at the front of the ankle where the joint capsule attaches. It can follow an injury where the ankle has been over stretched or over bent.
- Peroneal Tendonitis - Peroneal tendonitis is an inflammatory condition of the peroneal tendons which down the outer third of the lower leg and behind the ankle bone. This injury is often linked to pronation problems.
- Tibialis posterior tendinopathy - The tibialis posterior tendon runs behind the inner ankle bone and then underneath the foot. Long-term injury to this muscle can cause Tibialis posterior syndrome.
- Tibialis posterior syndrome - Tibialis posterior syndrome rarwely causes pain or any specific symptoms. It is caused by injury or dysfunction of the tibialis posterior muscle or tendon which results in a fallen arch or flat foot.
- Anterior ankle impingement - An ankle impingement occurs because of a bony growth at the front of the ankle. They usually occur in people who have had repeated ankle injuries.
- Pott's fracture - A pott's fracture is a fracture of either the medial (inner) or lateral (outer) ankle bone (malleolus). This often occurs when the ankle is rolled over.
- Medial malleolus stress fracture - A stress fracture is one that develops gradually through repeated stress or impact. The medial malleolus is the ankle bone on the inside of the joint.
- Sinus Tarsi Syndrome - Sinus tarsi syndrome usually develops following an injury such as an ankle sprain. Symptoms include poorly localised pain just in front of the bone on the outer ankle.
- Ankle sprain (inversion) - An inversion ankle sprain is damage to the ligaments on the outside of the ankle. This usually occurs after rolling the ankle to the outside. In severe injuries, a fracture may also be present so X-rays are always advised.
- Peroneal tendon dislocation - The peroneal tendon runs behind the lateral malleolus or the bony bit on the outer ankle. Repeated dislocation can mean the tendon rubs against the bone causing inflammation.
- Dislocated ankle - A dislocated ankle is a severe injury which happen from a forceful twisting of the ankle. The supporting ligaments are all ruptured and there are often associated fractures and tendon tears.
- Posterior ankle impingement - An ankle impingement occurs because of a bony growth at the back of the ankle. They usually occur in people who have had repeated ankle injuries.
- Stress fracture of the talus - The talus is the ankle bone which sits directly underneath the shin bone (tibia). A stress fracture here develops gradually through repeated stresses/impacts.
- Osteochondral lesions of the talus - An osteochondral lesion is a tear of the cartilage which lines the talus bone at the top of the ankle, underneath the shin bone. This might occur with ankle sprains or fractures or due to repeated friction (degeneration).
- Tibial osteochondral fracture - A Tibial Osteochondral Fracture is an injury to the cartilage which lines the end of the Tibia bone where it meets the Talus to form the ankle joint. This tends to happen when the ankle is twisted violently.
- Tibia growth plate fracture - A distal tibial gowth plate fracture is a break of the larger of the two shin bones, at the growth plate at the ankle end of the bone. These fractures occur in children and adolescents, before the bone in this area has fully hardened.