Bones & Joints

Bones and joints anatomy including foot, ankle, knee, hip, shoulder and elbow.

The foot is a very complex body part with 26 bones and so many more joints and even more ligaments. Plus tendons, muscles and other soft tissues!

The ankle joint consists of the upper bones, the Tibia and fibula and the Talus at the bottom. There are many ligaments supporting the joint, which are frequently injured.

The knee joint is the largest joint in the body, consisting of 4 bones and an extensive network of ligaments and muscles.

The hip joint is a ball and socket joint, formed by the head of the Femur (thigh bone) and the acetabulum of the pelvis. The dome-shaped head of the femur forms the ball, which fits snugly into the concave socket of the acetabulum.

The shoulder is a complex joint with high mobility but a lack of stability. The anatomy of the joint is explained here:

The elbow is a relatively simple hinge joint which only allows flexion and extension. The elbow joint occurs at the junction the humerus or upper arm bone, the ulna which is the larger of the two forearm bones and the radius bone.

The wrist joint is the complex joint formed between the distal ends (furthest from the body) of the Radius and Ulna (two forearm bones) and the carpal bones. It connects the forearm to the hand and allows a good range of motion. Repetitive use does however frequently lead to injuries.

The back in general is such a large area, incorporating everything from the pelvis to the very top of the neck and scapula (shoulder blades). For that reason this section focuses solely on the spine.