Musculoskeletal conditions include include general explanations of anything that affects the skeleton, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage or any other soft tissues. Injuries and terms such as tendonitis, sprains, & strains are covered as well as diseases such as Osteoperosis. For specific injuries view the body area specific section.

Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bones, usually in later life and most commonly in women. This means the bones break more easily.

A sprain is an injury to one or more ligaments. Ligaments are found at joints and connect two bones together.

Joint pain can be due to any number of causes, from injuries to medical conditions. Generally, joint pain is a dull pain which cannot be pinpointed to a specific area. Joint pain is most common in the hips and knees. Pain which is localised to one joint is usually a specific condition or injury at the joint in question. Multiple joint pain should be investigated for more systemic (whole body) conditions.

Stress Fractures

A stress fracture is an incomplete fracture of a bone, sometimes also known as a hairline fracture or a fatigue fracture. They are very thin cracks in the bone and can occur in the Tibia (shin), Metatarsals, Navicular, Calcaneus, Talus, Femur, and the Ribs.


There are basically two ways of injuring a tendon. Either in an acute, traumatic incident where the tendon tears, either partially or fully (e.g. Achilles tendon rupture). Or via an overuse injury which gradually develops over time. This is often referred to as Tendonitis.


A fracture is a break in a bone. There are many different types of fracture and contrary to popular belief, there is no difference between a 'break' and a 'fracture'.

Tumours of bone and soft tissue are rare but can affect younger athletes in their 20's and 30's. Here are some of the more common forms.


A contusion occurs in a muscle when there has been a direct impact. The most common site for a contusion is a quadriceps muscle contusion, which is sometimes then referred to as a 'charley horse' or a 'dead leg'. 


A strain is a muscular injury, which shouldn't be confused with a 'sprain', which is a ligament injury. Strains are tears to the muscle, which can vary in severity, from very minor, to a complete rupture.


The term arthritis can be applied to over two hundred separate conditions. The two most common forms are:

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis

Bursae are small sacks of fluid which lie between a tendon or muscle and the underlying bone. Their purpose is to reduce friction between the two. There are approximately 160 bursae in the body. 

When the body has injured a sequence of events is initiated that leads to the eventual repair of the injury site. The first stage in this process is inflammation which is followed by tissue healing and repair.

DOMS or delayed onset muscle soreness is a particular type of muscle soreness that sets in hours after exercise. The exercise is usually very hard or far more than the athlete would normally be accustomed to.