Warm-up and Cool-down
A warm-up should be performed prior to all exercise. The main two reasons for this are to improve performance and to decrease the risk of injury.
A good warm up will:
- Increase the temperature of muscles - they work better at a temperature of 40 degrees.
- Increase blood flow and oxygen to muscles.
- Increase the speed of nerve impulses - making you faster.
- Increase range of motion at joints reducing the risk of tearing muscles and ligaments.
Every coach and athlete will have their own method of warming up.
A warm up should consist of:
- A pulse raiser to circulate blood and oxygen supplying the muscles with more energy to work with (see below).
- Stretching to increase the range of motion at joints (see below).
- Sports specific exercises and drills.
The warm up should last between 15 and 30 minutes. Do not warm up too early. The benefits are lost after about 30 minutes of inactivity.
The pulse raiser is the first part of a warm-up and can be any activity which can be used to gradually increase the heart rate. Jogging is a good example because it requires no equipment at all and can begin at a very slow speed and gradually increase. Other good choices are cycling and skipping. Do bear in mind that it is always a good idea to perform a warm-up which is most similar in terms of movement patterns to the sport you are preparing for.
Stretches are an important part of any warm-up programme. They should be performed after the pulse raiser as by then the muscles are warmer and so more elastic, reducing the likelihood of injury.
There is debate surrounding the best method of stretching, but the general consensus now is that dynamic stretching (sometimes called active stretching) is most appropriate. This involves moving the muscle through its range, gradually increasing this each time in order to stretch the muscle. There are many exercises which can be used to stretch all of the muscle groups and again these can be sports specific. Click the pictures on the right for some examples.
Static stretches can also be used in order to stretch specific problem muscles. This is a very personal thing and may be dictated by past or current injuries and again the sport in question. Static stretches should be performed after dynamic ones as the muscle should be thoroughly warm by now!
Take the muscle to the point when you can feel a stretching sensation in the muscle belly. Hold this position for 20-30 seconds. If the stretching sensation fades in this time, move a little further into the stretch until you can feel it again. After 20-30 seconds, relax the muscle and then repeat, trying to move the joint further into its range. Again hold for 20-30 seconds.
Common areas of tightness in most sports players include the calf muscles (stretch gastrocnemius/stretch soleus), hamstrings (standing stretch/sitting stretch), quads (standing stretch/laying stretch) and groin (long adductors/short adductors).
Sports specific drills
It is important to rehearse common movement patterns and skills which will be used in the match/competition. This will not only help to improve performance through ensuring the muscles are prepared for the task in hand, but will also help to improve co-ordination, reaction times and accuracy.
Examples of sports specific exercises include:
- Dribbling drills (soccer/hockey etc)
- Passing drills (soccer/hockey/netball/basketball)
- Shooting drills (soccer/hockey/netball/basketball)
- Cutting maneuvers (All team sports)
- Hitting practice (cricket/tennis/baseball etc)
- Throwing drills (netball/basketball/cricket/baseball)
- Serve/bowling practice (tennis/cricket/baseball)
This is also often overlooked in favour of a drink in the bar but can help avoid injuries and boost performance. The aim of the cool down is to:
- Gradually lower heart rate.
- Circulate blood and oxygen to muscles, restoring them to the condition they were in before exercise.
- Reduce the risk of blood pooling by maintaining muscle action and heart rate to pump blood back to the heart.
- Remove waste products such as lactic acid.
- Reduce the risk of muscle soreness.
The cool down should consist of a gentle jog, decreasing in speed down to a walk followed by light static stretching. Remember to stretch all muscle groups used in the sport. Upper body muscles especially are often forgotten is sports such as football, soccer and rugby.
Sports massage can be used as part of either a warm-up or a cool down. During a warm-up a short massage can help to warm and stretch the muscles and get the blood pumping, ready for exercise. It can also help to prepare you mentally.
A post-exercise massage helps to remove waste products such as lactic acid which build up during exercise, and prevent blood pooling. It will aso help stretch the muscles and return them to their pre-exercise state!