General Conditions

This section covers general medical conditions that do not fit into specific areas of the body.

Gastrointestinal Symptoms - Exercise

Gastrointestinal (stomach and intestine) problems during exercise (especially high intensity exercise) are frequent. These may include heartburn, belching, abdominal cramps, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and an urge to defecate.


Anemia (anaemia) is a condition related to the number of red blood cells or the hemoglobin (haemoglobin) concentrations in the blood. There are several types of anemia, although the most common is Iron deficiency anemia.

Heat Injuries

There are several forms of heat injury which are usually caused by exercise participation in extreme heat or a lack of fluid intake (dehydration).

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a medical condition which can be caused by a number of factors. Up to 30% of adults have high blood pressure, but many aren't aware of it.

High Cholesterol

Having 'high cholesterol' is a medical condition which does not have any symptoms but which puts you at higher risk of other conditions such as heart attacks and strokes.

Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bones, usually in later life and most commonly in women. This means the bones break more easily.


Hypothyroidism is also known as an underactive thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is found in the neck and produces the hormone thyroxine which controls how much energy your body is using.


Hyperthyroidism is also known as an overactive thyroid ( or sometimes thyrotoxicosis). The thyroid gland is found in the neck and is responsible for the production of the chemical Thyroxine which controls energy levels.

Overtraining is excessive high intensity training and diminished rest periods which may result in feelings of constant tiredness, reduced performance, neural and hormonal changes, mood swings and frequent poor health.

Palpitations are feelings of an irregular heart beat. They are often described as 'pounding' 'racing' or 'fluttering' and are very common. Palpitations may be a symptom of a cardiovascular condition, although are more commonly completely harmless and not linked to any underlying condition.

A sprain is an injury to one or more ligaments. Ligaments are found at joints and connect two bones together.

Joint pain can be due to any number of causes, from injuries, to medical conditions. Generally, joint pain is a dull pain which cannot be pin-pointed to a specific area.Joint pain is most common in the hips and knees. Pain which is localised to one joint is usually a specific condition or injury at the joint in question. Multiple joint pain should be investigated for more systemic (whole body) conditions.

Stress Fractures

A stress fracture is an incomplete fracture of a bone, sometimes also known as a hairline fracture or a fatigue fracture. They are very thin cracks within the bone and can occur in the Tibia (shin), Metatarsals, Navicular, Calcaneus, Talus, Femur and the Ribs.


A stroke is a serious medical condition caused by a lack of blood flow to part of the brain. This is usually due to a blood clot preventing the blood reaching the whole brain.


There are basically two ways of injuring a tendon. Either in an acute, traumatic incident where the tendon tears, either partially or fully (e.g. Achilles tendon rupture). Or via an overuse injury which gradually develops over time. This is often referred to as Tendonitis.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a nervous system disorder where the bodies immune system attacks the peripheral (ones outside of the brain and spinal cord) nerves. The attack on the nervous system results in inflammation and damage of the nerves.


A fracture is a break in a bone. There are many different types of fracture and contrary to popular belief, there is no difference between a 'break' and a 'fracture'.

Chronic Fatigue

A certain degree of fatigue is normal in an athlete training hard for their sport or event. However, excessive and persistent fatigue and feelings of legarthy with a reduced sporting performance, often indicate a more serious problem.

Tumours of bone and soft tissue are rare but can affect younger athletes in their 20's and 30's. Here are some of the more common forms.


A contusion occurs in a muscle when there has been a direct impact. The most common site for a contusion is a quadriceps muscle contusion, which is sometimes then referred to as a 'charley horse' or a 'dead leg'.