Shoulder rehabilitation exercises usually begin in the early stages with mobility exercises, and progress to isometric or static shoulder exercises before dynamic, then functional, or sports-specific exercises.
Isometric shoulder exercises
These should be performed in flexion, extension, abduction, and internal and external rotation, as long as there is no pain.
- Exercise 1 – Patient pushes the thumbs to the wall, holds for 5 seconds, relaxes, and repeats.
- Exercise 2 – The patient pushes the backs of their hands into the wall. Hold for 5 seconds, rest and repeat.
- Exercise 3 – Position the arms at a 45-degree angle, then push back into the wall. Ensure the elbows are straight and the shoulder blades retracted (pulled together).
You can perform this exercise by performing the same movements in a prone lying position (on the front)
Shoulder mobility exercises
It is best to do shoulder mobility exercises in the early stages of rehabilitation when pain allows. This obviously depends on how bad your injury is and at what stage of rehabilitation you are at. The aim is to increase the pain-free range of movement at the shoulder.
Pendulum exercises should be done as soon as pain allows, as they are basic. Later you can use a pole or wand which can help increase the range of movement further. The athlete stands as shown with the body weight resting on the uninjured shoulder.
Keep the injured shoulder relaxed, the bodyweight is then shifted between the feet to initiate a back and forward motion. Standing with the feet level and at shoulder width, transferring the weight from right to left can be used to increase side-to-side movement.
Pole Mobility Exercises
Wand exercises use a long pole such as a broomstick to move the injured arm. The other arm powers the movement and the injured arm is kept relaxed as it is moved throughout its range of motion. Use the pole or stick to navigate the injured arm to avoid excess stress. Follow the movements shown in the videos; flexion, lateral rotation, medial rotation, abduction, and horizontal flexion/extension.
Stretching the top of the shoulder joint
Place a rolled-up towel between the bent elbow and body, to stretch the top of the shoulder. The other hand pulls the elbow inwards. The aim is to increase superior capsule mobility and shoulder extension. Place a rolled-up towel between the arm and the side of the body. With the elbow bent, the athlete pulls the elbow towards the body using the other hand.
Shoulder stability exercises
Stability exercises for the shoulder are an important part of the rehabilitation process. In particular, scapular stabilization (shoulder blade) is important for producing the normal movement patterns required in the shoulder joint to return to full fitness and prevent future injury.
Wobble board exercises for shoulder stability
Use a wobble balance board as part of ankle rehabilitation. This handy piece of kit can also be used to strengthen the scapular muscles and core stabilizers.
The athlete starts with their hands on the wobble board shoulder-width apart. For the more basic version of this exercise, the athlete supports themselves on their knees, you can progress through to the toes. Whilst maintaining balance the athlete performs circular movements on the board.
Swiss ball shoulder exercises
This is a plyometric exercise that challenges shoulder stability and the muscles of the upper extremity due to the shoulder having to provide stability.
The athlete positions themselves on the ball at the hips and places their hands on the wobble board. The athlete attempts to maintain balance whilst moving the arms. You can progress this by positioning the ball lower down the body.
Horizontal Abduction In Prone
The horizontal abduction exercise strengthens the teres minor and the infraspinatus muscles along with the posterior deltoid and the scapular stabilizers. The athlete lies with their arm over the edge of the table. Lift the arm with the weight up in a horizontal extension.
Read more on shoulder stability exercises.
Dynamic shoulder exercises
Dynamic shoulder exercises involve movement and make up a large part of a shoulder rehab program.
- They can usually begin as soon as pain allows, although check with your therapist or trainer which are suitable for your specific injury.
- Working the medial or internal rotation muscles is important after shoulder injuries, especially dislocations and impingement syndromes.
- Exercises include medial and lateral rotation, chest press, and others using resistance bands or dumbbell weights.
Functional shoulder exercises
Functional shoulder exercises bridge the gap between basic shoulder rehabilitation and more sports-specific exercises.
- They make use of medicine balls for catching and throwing with more explosive or ‘plyometric’ type exercises.
- Proprioception is the body’s positional awareness and is often damaged from injury resulting in a loss of coordination and shoulder stability.
View all functional shoulder exercises.