The Hamstring Muscles

The hamstring muscles at the back of the thigh consist of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus.

Semitendinosus

Semitendinosus muscleWhen running the hamstrings act eccentrically to slow down the knee extension motion. Hamstring strains are common in individuals with chronically tight hamstrings or who do not warm-up thoroughly.

Origin : Ischial tuberosity.

Insertion : Upper medial surface of the tibia.

Actions : Hip extension.
Knee flexion.
Internal rotation of the hip when the knee is flexed.

Innervation : Tibial part of the sciatic nerve.

Daily uses : Bending the knee to step over something.

Example strengthening exercises : Knee curl with resistance band.
Nordic curl.

Example stretches : Sitting hamstring stretch.
Standing hamstring stretch.

Semimembranosus

Semimembranosus muscleSemimembranosus is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles. Chronically tight hamstrings are often a contributory factor to lower back pain and knee pain.

Origin : Ischial tuberosity.

Insertion : Posterior part of the medial condyle of the tibia.

Actions : Hip extension.
Knee flexion.
Internal rotation of the hip when the knee is flexed.

Innervation : Tibial part of the sciatic nerve.

Daily uses : Bending the knee to step over something.

Example strengthening exercises : Knee curl with resistance band.
Nordic curl eccentric exercise

Example stretches : Sitting hamstring stretch.
Standing hamstring stretch.

Biceps Femoris

Biceps Femoris muscleBiceps Femoris is one of the three muscles which form the hamstring group forming the back of the thigh. The muscle is often described as having a long head (the attachment from the ischium) and a short head (attached to the femur).


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