Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a term used to describe the compression of nerves and / or blood vessels which travel from the neck to the armpit (axilla). Compression of these structures can cause pain, tingling, numbness and weakness from the neck and throughout the arm.

Symptoms

Symptoms vary depending on the exact location and structures being compressed, as well as the extent of the compression, but may include:

  • Pain in the neck or shoulder
  • Tingling or numbness in the arm
  • The arm may feel weak or easily fatigued
  • A cold hand
  • Symptoms are made worse by overhead movements

What is Thoracic Outlet Syndrome?

The thoracic outlet is the gap between the clavicle (collarbone) and the first rib. There are lots of nerves and blood vessels which run through this space, including the brachial plexus and subclavian artery and vein.

If the posture around the shoulder is not good, then the shoulder moves forwards, which lowers the collarbone. This can result in compression of the nerves and blood vessels underneath it. Similarly, tension in the scalene muscles can cause compression.

Congenital anatomical variances (meaning genetic body types and traits inherited from parents) can also make it more likely an individual will developing thoracic outlet syndrome. For example, cervical ribs and collar bone abnormalities. Traumatic injuries to the clavicle such as fractured collarbone may also reduce the space, especially in cases of malunion.

Treatment

Treatment should aim to correct the cause of the compression and in most cases this is poor posture, so the following will help:

Stretching the chest muscles especially pectoralis minor and scalenes can be beneficial in improving posture of the upper back and shoulder girdle. Stand in a doorway or next to a wall. Bend the arm being stretched and place the forearm flat against the wall or doorframe. Step forwards and rotate your body away from your outstretched arm. Hold for between 10 and 30 seconds.

Sports massage - particularly trigger point therapy. Trigger points are tight localized knots or lumps in the muscles which cause back pain. Treatment is often part of a deep tissue massage and involves applying sustained pressure to the trigger point in the muscle. As pain eases the pressure is increased again without easing off. This is repeated two or three time as appropriate. Play upper back massage video.

Strengthening exercises for the Serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle as well as scapula mobilisation

Related Articles

Brachial Plexopathy

Brachial plexopathy occurs when there is damage to the brachial plexus - the bundle of nerve which exit your spinal cord at the base of the neck, between the C5 and T1 vertebrae.

Neck Strain

A neck strain is a muscle injury of the neck.  A neck strain is quite a common injury and generally is a mild to moderate injury which clears by itself within a few days to a week.

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is a postural syndrome of the upper back and neck where the shoulders appear rounded and the upper back hunched. We examine the causes and treatment options.