Toe injuries are common in sport and include acute, sudden onset injuries caused by direct trauma as well as overuse injuries.
A black toenail or Subungual Hematoma is a common problem resulting from direct trauma and impact to the toe or overuse. It is frequently known as ‘Jogger’s Toe’.
The toenail turns black because blood settles between the nail and the skin increasing pressure, resulting in pain.
Read more on Black toenail.
Ingrown toenail or onychocryptis is a common and frustrating cause of toe pain. It is often caused by improper footwear or due to poor nail cutting. Pain and redness around the side of the toenail are the main symptoms.
Read more on Ingrown toenails.
Hallux Rigidus is a stiff & painful big toe, specifically at the base of the joint. Symptoms also include pain, swelling, and inflammation in the joint. Hallux is Latin for ‘big toe’ or ‘great toe’ and yes, you can guess that rigidus simply means rigid or stiff. Halllux Rigidus can be caused either by a direct impact or from overuse.
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Hammer toe is a condition which causes one or more of the smaller toes to become bent upwards. It is often caused by wearing shoes that are too small the toes are pushed into a shortened position, making them bend upwards. A corn or callus may develop at the top of the toe and the joint may feel painful.
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Turf toe occurs after a very vigorous upward bending of the big toe. As a result, ligaments under the base of the toe sprain (stretch or tear). Symptoms consist of:
- Big toe pain in the MTP joint at the base of the toe.
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Dislocated toes are normally caused by direct trauma to the toe. This can sprain the toe ligament and displace the phalanges bones in the toe. Severe pain will appear at the time of impact and can be reproduced by trying to bend the toe. Seeing a doctor is recommended to ensure the bone heals properly.
Read more on Dislocated toes.
References & further reading
- McCormick JJ, Anderson RB. Rehabilitation following turf toe injury and plantar plate repair. Clin Sports Med 2010;29:313–23.