The subscapularis muscle is one of the four rotator cuff muscles. It is hidden behind the rip cage on the underside of the scapula or shoulder blade and is often injured by throwing sports.
Origin: Entire under surface of the scapula (subscapular fossea).
Insertion: Less tubercle of the humerus.
Actions: Internal rotation, Adduction, Extension and stabilization of the glenohumeral joint.
Innervation: Upper and lower subscapular nerve.
Example strengthening exercises: similar to those of the latissimus dorsi and teres major including pull downs, rope climbs.
Stretching: Externally rotate the shoulder and raise the arm up at the side (abduct).