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Foot injuries are separated into heel pain, midfoot pain, forefoot pain (including pain under the ball of the foot), toe injuries and skin conditions such as athletes foot and blisters. Foot pain can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (gradual onset). If you have suffered a recent foot injury then it is usually best to apply immediate first aid in the form of ice or cold therapy. We also explain under which circumstances you should see a doctor or seek professional medical advice.
Ankle injuries can be acute (sudden onset) such as ankle sprains and fractures, or gradual onset through overuse. Here we explain acute ankle injuries, lateral ankle pain (outside of the ankle), medial ankle pain (inside of the ankle), anterior ankle pain (front of the ankle) and achilles pain at the back of the ankle. We cover emergency first aid in the form of cold therapy and compression, when to seek medical advice as well as rehabilitation exercises.
Injuries to the lower leg can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (gradual onset). The most common cause of pain at the front of the lower leg is known as shin splints and refers to pain along the bone on the lower, inside of the shin which develops gradually over time. A calf strain is the most likely cause of sudden onset pain at the back of the leg. We explain how and when to apply emergency first aid in the form of cold therapy as well as when to see a doctor or seek medical advice.
Knee injuries can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (gradual onset). Acute knee injuries are usually the result of twisting or a hard impact and will likely involve ligament, tendon or cartilage joint injury. We have categorised gradual onset knee injuries into lateral knee pain (outside of the knee), medial knee pain (inside of the knee), anterior (front of the knee) and posterior (back of the knee).
Thigh injuries are separated into front thigh, back of the thigh and groin pain. Most thigh injuries are sudden onset (acute) such as a thigh strain, groin strain or hamstring strain, but thigh pain can also be chronic (occur gradually over time). This is especially likely if an acute injury has not been treated correctly or failed to heal properly. If you have suffered a sudden onset thigh injury we explain how to apply emergency first aid in the form of ice or cold therapy as well as when to seek professional advice.
Buttock, hip and groin pain is often connected or might be pain referred from another area such as the lower back. The hip and groin area is one of the most challenging areas of the body to treat by sports injury specialists. This is because there are a large number of possible structures that can be injured and cause pain in this area, and also because most of the structures are very deep within the groin area (including the hip joint).
Back pain can be acute or chronic. Acute back pain can come on suddenly from a specific incident or injury and is particularly painful or it can occur from chronic long term back pain which has flared up and become painful. Here we explain specific back injuries as well as treatment, management and prevention of back pain.
If you have sustained any kind of head injury it is always advisable to seek medical attention immediately. A direct blow to the head can be a minor injury right through to something more serious or even death. Head injuries include trauma to the head or brain, concussion, facial injuries including the eyes and nose, and ear pain. Here we explain how to recognise and treat various head injuries as well as when to seek medical attention.
Shoulder injuries can be either acute (sudden onset) or chronic (gradual onset). Sudden onset shoulder injuries usually occur either through direct impact or trauma such as a dislocation or from over stretching or twisting as in a rotator cuff strain. Acute shoulder injuries can become chronic if they are not diagnosed and treated properly. We explain how to recognise and treat shoulder injuries as well as emergency first aid and when to see medical advice.
Arm and elbow injuries are separated into lateral elbow pain (outside of the elbow), medial elbow pain (inside of the elbow) posterior elbow pain (at the back of the elbow), acute elbow injuries (sudden onset), forearm pain and upper arm injuries. Tennis elbow is the most common cause of pain on the outside of the elbow. Here we explain how to recognise and treat elbow and arm injuries as well as when to seek medical advice.
Wrist injuries which occur suddenly are known acute wrist injuries They are usually caused from a fall onto an outstretched arm or a forced twisting movement and include wrist strains, sprains and fractures. Gradual onset injuries or chronic wrist pain occurs over a period of time and often cannot be traced back to a single incident or cause. These include wrist tenonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome and bursitis. An acute wrist injury may become chronic over time if it is not treated correctly.
Chest pain in the athlete can be anything from indigestion to a heart attack so if you are at all unsure seek medical advice. Moderate to severe chest injuries should always be assessed by a doctor to ensure the ribs, lungs and other internal organs, including the heart, have not been affected or damaged. However, in view of the possible consequences from any chest or abdominal injury, always consult a doctor if in doubt.
This section covers general medical conditions that do not fit into specific areas of the body and includes general musclular skeletal terms, viral illnesses, infections, diseases affecting the nervous system and cardiovascular system. Also included are mental health and psychological issues which are relevant in sport.