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Iliotibial Band Syndrome
Iliotibial band syndrome causes knee pain on the outside of the knee from friction of the iliotibial band on the side of the knee. It is also known as ITB syndrome or ITBFS and sometimes referred to as runners knee.
Iliotibial band syndrome symptoms
Symptoms of ITB syndrome consist of pain on the outside of the knee at or around the lateral epicondyle of the femur or bony bit on the outside of the knee. The pain comes on at a certain time in a run and gradually gets worse until often the runner has to stop. After a period of rest the pain may go only to return again when running starts again. The pain is normally aggravated by running, particularly downhill.
Pain may be felt when bending and straightening the knee which may be made worse by pressing in at the side of the knee over the sore part. There might be tighness in the iliotibial band which is the long tendon that runs down the outside of the thigh. A therapist or trainer may use Ober's test to assess this. Weakness in hip abduction or moving the leg out sideways is another sign. Tender trigger points in the gluteal muscles or buttocks area may also be present.
Causes of iliotibial band syndrome
Certain factors may make you more susceptible to developing runners knee or iliotibial band syndrome. A naturally tight or wide IT band may make someone more susceptible to this injury. Weak hip muscles such as gluteus medius are also thought to be a significant factor.
Over pronation or poor foot biomechanics may increase the risk of injury. If the foot rolls in or flattens, the lower leg rotates and so does the knee increasing the chance of friction on the band. Other factors include leg length difference, running on hills or on cambered roads.
Iliotibial band syndrome treatment
What can the athlete do?
Rest and apply cold therapy or ice to reduce any inflammation. Ice should be applied for 10 to 15 minutes every hour until initial pain has gone. When pain has gone and training starts again avoid downhill running. Iliotibial band stretches after training and throughout the day are important.
Perform foam roller exercises to help stretch the iliotibial band and remove any tight knots or lumps in the tendon. Self massage techniques can also be very helpful in correcting excessive ITB tightness.
See a sports injury specialist who can advise on a full ITB rehab program.
What can a Sports Injury Professional do?
Perform ITB massage to help relax and loosen the tissues and use myofascial release techniques which have been shown to be highly effective.
A doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory medication such as NSAID’s e.g. Ibuprofen. Dry-needling techniques or acupuncture may be beneficial also. Use electrotherapeutic treatment techniques such as TENS or ultrasound to reduce pain and inflammation.
The will outline a rehabilitation strategy which may include stretches and exercises to strengthen the hip abductors. In acute or prolonged cases a corticosteroid injection into the site of irritation may provide pain relief.