Peroneal tendonitis is inflammation of the peroneal tendons which run behind the lateral malleolus or the bony bit on the outside of the ankle causing and swelling on the outer ankle.
Symptoms of peroneal tendonitis include pain and swelling on the outside of the ankle just below the bony bit or lateral malleolus. Pain is often worse during activity but gets better with rest. There may be pain when pressing in on the peroneal tendons on the outside of the ankle. Pain may be recreated by stretching the peroneal muscles by inverting the foot or turning it inwards as well as attempting to do the reverse against resistance.
Peroneal tendonitis explained
The peroneal muscle at the back of the lower leg has a tendon which runs behind the lateral malleolus or the bony bit on the outside of the ankle. Overuse can cause the peroneal tendon to rub on the bone and become inflamed.
Runners who run along slopes which causes excessive eversion or rolling out of the foot are more susceptible to developing peroneal tendonitis. As the foot rolls outwards the peroneal tendon is stretched more across the bone increasing the friction between the tendon and the bone.
Tight calf muscle will increase the tension in the peroneal tendon causing it to rub more. Overuse is also a contributory factor, particularly in dancers or basketball players. Overpronation of the foot or excess eversion of the foot, again will cause the peroneal tendon to run against the malleolus on the ankle bone more.
The peroneus longus tendon runs around the back of the lateral malleolus and under the foot to attach at the outside of the first metatarsal and cuniform bones.
The peroneus brevis passes around the back of the lateral malleolus and attaches to the outside of the foot on the base of the 5th metatarsal on the outside of the foot. The muscles act to plantar flex the foot (point foot downwards) and evert the foot or turn it inwards.
Rest is important. As peroneal tendinitis is an over use injury then continuing to train is not going to allow the inflammation to go and the injury to heal. It may be possible to do other activities such as swimming or cycling to maintain fitness. The rule is it it hurts or makes the injury worse either immediately or the following day then don't do it!
Apply ice or cold therapy to the painful area for 10 minutes every hour until symptoms reduce. NSAID's (non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) may be prescribed to reduce pain and inflammation. Always consult a doctor as some drugs such as Ibuprofen should not be taken by asthmatics.
Stretching the calf muscles and peroneal muscles is important. Tight peroneal muscles will increase the friction between the peroneal tendon and the bone. Gently stretching the muscles over time will reduce the tension in the tendon. This is especially important as what some athletes may find is simply resting alone will result in the pain and inflammation going away but if tight muscles is the original cause of injury then as soon as training begins again then peroneal tendonitis may return.
Deep tissue sports massage to the peroneal muscles can help to reduce tension in the muscle and help lengthen the muscles which in turn reduces the tension in the tendon. In severe cases surgery may be required.