General Injuries & Conditions

This section covers general medical conditions which are not necessarily located at a specific body area.


Anemia (anaemia) is a condition related to the number of red blood cells or the hemoglobin (haemoglobin) concentrations in the blood.


The term arthritis can be applied to over two hundred seperate conditions.


Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways which causes shortness of breath and 'wheezing'.

Bone and soft tissue tumors

Tumours of bone and soft tissue are rare but can affect younger athletes in their 20's and 30's. Here are some of the more common forms.


Bursae are small sacks of fluid which lie between a tendon or muscle and the underlying bone. Their purpose is to reduce friction between the two.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease is an inherited condition which affects the peripheral nervous system (the nerves outside of the brain and spinal column).

Chest pain in athletes

Chest pain in athletes may be caused by a wide range of conditions including muscular pain and pain referred from the thoracic spine.

Chronic fatigue

A certain degree of fatigue is normal in an athlete training hard for their sport or event.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a hotly debated condition, to the extent that some medical professionals debate its very existence.


A contusion occurs in a muscle when there has been a direct impact. The most common site for a contusion is a quadriceps muscle contusion.

Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD - also known as Coronary Artery Disease) is a narrowing of the small blood vessels which supply blood to the heart itself.


Dehydration is an 'excessive loss of water from the body'. This can happen for numerous reasons, such as illness (through vomiting and diarrhea),

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

DOMS or delayed onset muscle soreness is a particular type of muscle soreness that sets in hours after exercise.


Depression is an illness which results in feelings of extreme sadness that interfere with your daily life.


Diabetes (also called diabetes mellitus) is a relatively common condition which affects the levels of sugar within the blood.


Epilepsy is a neurological condition which affects the brain. Its most dominant and well known feature is the seizure (convulsions, or fit).


Fibromyalgia is a widespread muscular pain and fatigue condition. Pain and tenderness is felt throughout the body, not just in one specific muscle or area.


A fracture is a break in a bone. There are many different types of fracture and contrary to popular belief, there is no difference between a 'break' and a 'fracture'.

Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Exercise

Gastrointestinal (stomach and intestine) problems during exercise (especially high intensity exercise) are frequent.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a nervous system disorder where the bodies immune system attacks the peripheral (ones outside of the brain and spinal cord) nerves.

Heat Injuries

There are several forms of heat injury which are usually caused by exercise participation in extreme heat or a lack of fluid intake (dehydration).


A hernia occurs when an internal part of the body (such as the intestine), pushes through a weakness in the overlying muscle wall, resulting in a soft lump.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a medical condition which can be caused by a number of factors.

High Cholesterol

Having 'high cholesterol' is a medical condition which does not have any symptoms but which puts you at higher risk of other conditions such as heart attacks and strokes.


Hyperthyroidism is also known as an overactive thyroid ( or sometimes thyrotoxicosis).


Hyponatremia is also known as fluid overload. This occurs in hot climates when the athlete consumes too much plain water.


Hypothyroidism is also known as an underactive thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is found in the neck and produces the hormone thyroxine


When the body is injured a sequence of events is initiated that leads to the eventual repair of the injury site.

Inflammation & Tissue Healing

When the body is injured a sequence of events is initiated that leads to the eventual repair of the injury site.

Joint Pain

Joint pain can be due to any number of causes, from injuries, to medical conditions. Generally, joint pain is a dull pain which cannot be pin-pointed to a specific area.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are small hard lumps which develop within the kidneys. They can develop from the waste products which are filtered through the kidneys forming crystalised masses.


The word 'neuro' relates to our nerves. There are lots of terms out there which all refer to some form of nerve injury, damage or pain.


Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bones, usually in later life and most commonly in women. This means the bones break more easily.

Overtraining Syndrome

Overtraining is excessive high intensity training and diminished rest periods which may result in feelings of constant tiredness.


Palpitations are feelings of an irregular heart beat. They are often described as 'pounding' 'racing' or 'fluttering' and are very common.


A sprain is an injury to one or more ligaments. Ligaments are found at joints and connect two bones together.


A strain is a muscular injury, which shouldn't be confused with a 'sprain', which is a ligament injury. Strains are tears to the muscle.

Stress fractures

A stress fracture is an incomplete fracture of a bone, sometimes also known as a hairline fracture or a fatigue fracture.


A stroke is a serious medical condition caused by a lack of blood flow to part of the brain. This is usually due to a blood clot preventing the blood reaching the whole brain.


There are basically two ways of injuring a tendon. Either in an acute, traumatic incident where the tendon tears, either partially or fully.

Viral Illness

Viral illnesses are usually simply referred to as a virus, or viral infection. They occur when a microscopic infectious agent enters the body.